Compile and document the known and unknown information about the product. This phase generates a Preliminary Requirements Document and a Determination of Tasks outline that must be completed in a concept and modeling phase to verify and validate the concept and the requirements. If the preliminary requirements are already complete and validated, then the project can skip ahead to the design phase.


Gather information that was not available at the start of the project and perform modeling and other activities such as competitive comparisons to verify and validate the concept. One or more models may be created, including computer simulations, tabletop aesthetic models, and key technology demonstrations, in order to validate the concept and reduce both business and technical risks.


Complete the top-level Engineering Requirements Specification and lower level specifications for subsystems and key components so that design and procurement of subsystems and components can begin. During this phase, the risk management file is completed through risk identification and evaluation. The success of the design hinges on requirements being confidently and clearly communicated throughout the team.


Design at all levels of the system is performed, as well as both unit and subsystem testing. At the beginning of the design phase architectural decisions are made, and technologies are selected. Long-lead items may be ordered for prototypes as soon as the component requirements have been created and reviewed. Both internal and external interfaces are designed. This phase generates design packages for all of the components, subsystems, and system levels of the project. One or more prototype systems are created to use for integration, unit and subsystem testing, and for further testing during Verification and Validation. These prototypes also begin the recording of manufacturing documentation.


Verification is performed in the engineering environment and validation is performed in the product-use environment, culminating in a complete set of reports including a completed risk management file and traceability matrix. Some testing may be performed by outside entities for compliance with standards.


Production may begin with a pilot batch before transitioning to either batch or serial production of the product. The pilot batch may be used to finalize and validate manufacturing processes and documentation.